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Education of children with disabilities

New forms of educational integration


Many years of experimental work has shown that the most adequate conditions for carrying out purposeful work on the integration of children with developmental disabilities have a combined educational institutions - institutions which include both ordinary and special pre-school groups and school classes. Under these conditions, it becomes possible to effectively carry out the integration of children with developmental disabilities, taking into account the level of development of each child, choosing useful and possible for him "stake" of integration that is one of its models. Consider the operation of an integrated education and training model as an example of pre-school of the combined type of institution that can be created:

  • Conventional group, where the vast majority of normally developing children.
  • Ad hoc groups, where only trained and educated children with developmental disabilities (occupancy group of 6 to 10 children, depending on age, nature of the breach, the degree of its severity, the presence of children with complex defect structure).
  • Mixed group, where at the same time educated and trained normally developing children (two thirds) and children with specific developmental disabilities (no more than one-third). The overall occupancy of the group is reduced to 12-15 people, and a teacher of mixed groups necessarily a therapist.

The usual group of pre-school institution and the combined type can be brought up and taught 1 - maximum 2 children with diagnosed primary developmental disorders (hearing impairment, or vision, or musculoskeletal system), but have reached the moment of admission to the level of development of a group close to the age normal, or its corresponding. The educator can be an expert in the field of education of normally developing children. Teacher pathologist (a special group of the same institution) provides specialized integrated assistance to children and advice to carers groups that are not defectologists. In special groups where only trained and educated children with developmental disabilities, it is possible to find every child a useful and possible for him the degree of integration, choosing partial or temporary integration. We consider that such a partial and temporary integration.

Partial integration of children with disabilities in the development of a special group, still unable to par with their normally developing peers to acquire the necessary skills and abilities, infused into the usual 1-2 person groups for part of the day (for example, in the second half) or to individual classes. The implications of this integration is to enhance communication between children with developmental disabilities and their normally developing peers. In other words, partial integration is an attempt to targeted expansion of existing ones, but still relatively small opportunities for children in the area of social inclusion.

Unite with their normally developing peers. This is at least 2 times a month for joint activities of an educational nature. The main purport of the time integration is the creation of conditions for the acquisition of initial experience with normally developing peers.

In mixed groups are special conditions for the early, full social and educational integration of a significant number of children with developmental disorders. In addition, in mixed groups can obtain the necessary special pedagogical support for children without the expressed primary abnormalities in the development, but experiencing persistent difficulties in learning other reasons.

We emphasize that in the pre-school of the combined type in conventional mass Group work educators kindergarten, and in the mixed and special - the teacher-therapist and educators. At the same time the teacher-therapist special groups additionally assists children with developmental disabilities from the regular group.

Thus, the described model of the combined institution allows to provide children with special support and enable the integration of all children with severe developmental disabilities. In addition, each child receives the "stake" of integration which it is useful and available at this stage of its development (the system of mass and special education, of course, enjoying its benefits, can not provide such individually dosed integration of each child).

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