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The current French system of secondary education consist of, like most European systems, three levels - primary (ecole primaire, from 6 to 11 years) and older (college, college - from 11 to 15 years, then the lycee, lyceum - from 16 to 18). This is rather conservative system that exists with minor changes for over 100 years - since the 1890s. State standard Education is compulsory for children from 6 to 16 years (lycée, primarily prepares students for admission to universities). In the public schools education is free, but there are private alternatives.
Private schools - mostly paid, but less constrained by government framework - also provide their graduates diplomas of national standart. There are two types of such schools in terms of their relations with the State: subsidized (sous contrat) and non-subsidized (hors contrat). In the first of them the government pays salaries to teachers and schools follow the national program and the standard schedule, and secondly - subsidies received from the Government, but there is an opportunity to educate their children on non-standard programs.
Among the state-subsidized schools there are also two categories: «contrat simple» and «contrat d'association». Contrat simple: school meets the state requirements for curriculum and exams in exchange for subsidies for salaries for teachers. Contrat d'association: in addition to "sontrat simple» School partially controlled by the government in regard to the teaching methods and the selection of teachers in exchange for funding for operating expenses and salaries. To receive funding under such a contract, the school must prove that they have a certain philosophy, which is absent in the public system. Usually private schools have religious (Catholic) orientation. Such a system operates in France since 1959 (the so-called laws of Debray).
Tuition fees in private schools depends on many factors, but in general, is not particularly prohibitive for European framework. Thus, training in one of the oldest and most elite schools - Ecole de Roches - in 2008 was 27 320 euros per academic year.
Note also that 80% of schools in France - the state and the smallest category - non-subsidized by the state institutions of the country only about 20% (primary less, about 9%, average just over 30%). The amount of teachers in public schools is also higher than in private.
Among the non-state schools in France are almost all religious (Catholic) schools, and schools for children with disabilities, etc. In other words, the private sector driven out those schools that educate people deliberately unusual or non-standard ways of doing it.
Primary school in France has small classes, gaming approach to things, the absence of estimates in most schools. But in the 11 years completing primary school, young Frenchmen arrive in college to get college papers, which is considered the first stage of secondary education. The college classes are considered in reverse order: the student enters the sixth grade, finishes third in four years. Then comes the final stage of the Lyceum, which takes two years. There are two main types of Lyceums - secondary (general) and technological (technologique), but inside each category there are a lot of profiles, specializations.
The second class of the Lyceum (ie, the first chronologically) General Education, is to specializations not yet reach. The first class already has a lot of areas - branches of study leading to a bachelor degree different types (so called test of analog of our matriculation, actually the first specialized work or student project). In some high schools as profiles even offer programs such as aeronautics or astronautics.
With basically the same Prussian education system, the education system in Germany today is much more diversified and, in the opinion of some analysts, less democratic. Critics of the German school system usually point to the fact that the main choice for the future of the child is still in elementary school - later, when the family initially did not allow the possibility to choose a good school, to break into the elite ranks of the extremely difficult, almost impossible.
Thus, a primary school in Germany, teaches children from 6 to 10 years (or up to 12 years in Berlin and Brandenburg). In it, children learn to read, count, write, study natural sciences. Differences among elementary schools consist mainly of stock and as additional training. Then comes the turn of high school - from 10 to 19 years. Here, specialization and social stratification among schools becomes apparent.
Selecting the type of school, as stated in German law, there is individual for each student in accordance with the recommendation of the school, the desire of parents, school level assessments, as well as the result of entrance examinations. Since the level of development and the presence of the recommendations related to the fact, in a primary school child attended, the school choice often depends on the capacity of the family.
The types of secondary schools in Germany are follows: primary school (Hauptschule) - is designed for 5-6 years of study and requires further training in a vocational school; real school (Realschule) - is designed for 6 years, the highest score obtained by the learning outcomes in a real school, lets go to the senior grammar school class, and then to the University; Finally, the most thorough education give Gymnasium (Gymnasium) - there training lasts 8-9 years.
As a rule, high school focuses on three main areas: humanities (languages, literature, art), social (social sciences) and technical (natural sciences, mathematics, engineering). Upon completion of training issued high school diploma (Abitur). German Abitur is the equivalent of the British A-level. Grammar focus for admission on the University.
In addition to these three types, there are also common school (Gesamtschule) - they combine different features of grammar schools and real schools, allowing you to get both humanitarian and technical education.
In addition to public schools, also issued certificates gosobraztsa and private schools. This is usually religious, elitist, closed schools. The range of educational services provided by private operators, wider public - for example, only in such schools can obtain a German passport for a foreign student for.
Private schools in Germany (in public education expected free) take expensive French tuition - so prestigious German schools, the total price of the school year is about 40 000 euros.
British secondary school - perhaps the most distinctive education system in Western Europe. And yet, perhaps the most prestigious - regardless of the type of the PISA test, the British school magnet attracts students from around the world, not excluding Russians.
"Teach a lot, we - we educate gentlemen" - this phrase attributed to the director of one of the most prestigious British schools. Actually, this is the essence of carefully constructed brand british secondary education.
Education in the UK is compulsory for all citizens between the ages from 5 to 16 years. There are two sectors of education: public (free education) and private (fee-paying schools, the year in which cost 40 - 50 thousand US dollars). In addition, a big difference exists between the education systems of different parts of Britain: a system developed in England, Wales and Northern Ireland is different from the one in Scotland.
One of the most characteristic of the UK secondary school type - a boarding school, a tradition which dates back to the early Middle Ages. Initially, these schools were in monasteries, in particular, Benedictine. Although the monastery boarding schools were charitable, now half a millennium British boarding schools are paid.
Now boarding schools have a reputation as a "noble" - the fact that once was the school of this type have grown several generations of Britons, subjugate half of the world. And now some of the guest houses, that there has for many hundreds of years under one roof and one name, you can call the club for the descendants of the aristocratic families of the former empire.
In addition to these schools in the UK, there are many other types of educational institutions. By age students are divided into full-cycle schools (All-Through schools), it is roughly the equivalent of our teaching and educational complexes "from kindergarten to graduation party"; and schools for each age: preparatory schools - nursery-gardens, from 2 to 7 years, in which, besides the usual kindergarten classes are taught also to read and write, junior schools - elementary schools, from 7 to 13 years, ending with a special exam Common Entrance Examination, without which way further closed. In addition, there is an alternative system - Primary School from 4 to 11 years, with a further shift to the stage of Secondary School.
Next comes after Junior High School, Senior School - in here study of adolescents 13 to 18 years. Here, children are first two-year training to pass the GCSE exams, followed by another two-year program: A-Level or International Baccalaureate.
In a parallel system of this age "covers" Secondary school, which teaches children from 11 years. Grammar school - it education for children between the ages of 11 years of profound program. The graduating classes for those entering later in universities in Britain called Sixth Form, is 2 senior year students (16 - 18 years).
In Britain, still has a strong tradition of separate education for boys and girls. This is particularly evident in the world of traditional boarding schools, the majority of which is "separate." However, the school of "new formation" in the main, on the contrary, mixed.